Vision disorders can be very difficult to detect and are often identified at a later stage when treatment becomes difficult. Most vision disorders start becoming painful and show symptoms when they are at an advanced stage. Studies show that more 1 in 28 people in the USA suffer from visual disorders that make it difficult for them to function in society.
One of the most common forms of visual disorders, macular degeneration usually occurs with the progression of age. Macular degeneration may either be wet or dry and affects the macula which is in the center of the retina hindering the ability to see finer details. Wet macular degeneration occurs when blood vessels start growing underneath the macula resulting in leakage of blood and fluids. Dry macular degeneration occurs when the macula thins over the course of time resulting in blurred vision. 70% to 90% of the reported cases of macular degeneration are dry.
Although they may occur at any age, cataracts are mostly another age related eye disorder and are observed to naturally occur beyond the age of 65. Other causes may include heredity, diabetes, steroid use, eye injuries and birth defects. Cataracts symptoms include blurred and cloudy vision which is a result of the development of a cloudy substance right above the lens. Individuals suffering from cataracts may experience sensitivity to light, impaired night vision, dimming of colors and double vision.
Glaucoma is a term used to refer to a number of diseases which are cause by damage to the optic nerve which results in loss of vision. An increase in pressure of the fluid within the eye begins interfering with vision and leads to blindness. Since the optic nerve is the part of the eye that transmits information to the brain, damage to the nerve can have detrimental and severe effects. Patients suffering from glaucoma may experience nausea, vomiting, headaches and blurred vision. Severe eye pain and rainbow haloes are also seen when suffering from glaucoma.
Amblyopia also known as ‘lazy eye’ occurs mostly in children. This happens when the alignment between the two eyes is incorrect and the two find it difficult to work in cohesion to form a single image. This causes difficulty in the transmission of visual data to the brain. The brain refers to the dominant eye in order to create the image and ignores the lesser dominant one for information. Hence, the term ‘lazy’ eye. Individuals suffering from Amblyopia may suffer from poor vision in the weaker eye, problems in perceiving depth and have eyes that point in different directions since the brain prefers the dominant eye. Some treatments for Amblyopia include a patching up of the stronger eye in order to force the weaker one to work more efficiently. This helps strengthen the focus of the eye in a natural way. Other treatments may include surgery and contacts.
Eye disorders are extremely common and usually occur due to age. It is recommended that individuals get regular eye checkups since symptoms are usually not recognizable until the disease itself has progressed.