Eye diseases are very common and mostly treatable. But there are some, which if not treated in time, can lead to blindness. Therefore, it is important to know at least something about eye health disorders so that corrective measures can be taken in time. Some of the most commonly occurring eye disorders are explained below:

Astigmatism

Astigmatism is an eye disorder in which the cornea is not as evenly curved as it needs to be, to produce clear vision. The cornea is steeper in one direction than the other. This causes sight distortion because everything becomes blurry. Most people who have nearsightedness also suffer from astigmatism.

Astigmatism can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses or laser surgery.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration or AMD is an eye health disorder which affects the macula. Macula is found at the back of the eye and helps see directly. It controls the central vision. For example, when you focus on someone’s face, it is done with the help of macula. When age-related macular degeneration takes place, it destroys the macula slowly. This results in a person not being able to use his/her central vision anymore. There are two types of AMD: wet and dry.

Wet AMD can be detected when a person sees straight lines as wavy lines. It occurs because blood vessels start growing under the macula. It causes leakage of blood and other fluids which results in a quick deterioration of vision.

Dry AMD happens with progressing age. The macula thins out gradually, causing the vision to blur. 70%-90% cases of AMD are of dry AMD. It could also lead to blindness. AMD can be treated with medicines as well as laser surgery.

Cataract

Cataract is the major reason for causing blindness all over the world. This is not because cataract is incurable but because people either don’t have information about it or because they can’t afford to get the surgery done. Cataract causes the eye lens to become clouded. It’s not painful but if left untreated, eventually leads to blindness. People who suffer from cataract experience blurred or dimmed vision, light sensitivity, near sightedness and problematic color perception.

Cataract might take place because of diabetes, old age, excess exposure to sunlight, eye injury or radiation treatments. It sometimes occurs in babies too. Cataracts can very easily be removed with the help of surgery. Very mild cases of cataracts are treated with prescription glasses.

Strabismus

An eye health disorder is caused when there is a lack of coordination among both the eyes. This might be because the eye muscles fail to function properly. Strabismus results in making the eyes look in different directions. They are unable to focus on any one thing at one time.

When Strabismus occurs in children it eventually leads to blindness in one of the eyes. Since the eyes cannot focus on one single thing, the brain starts ignoring impulses which causes amblyopia or lazy eye. It can be corrected with glasses or surgery.

Sometimes Strabismus is a signal to some other serious neurological condition. Therefore, when observed in a child, a doctor should immediately be consulted.

Most eye disorders are treatable. They just need to be identified on time so that immediate action can be taken.

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